since 1993 release
Repair and operation of the car
The Citroyon Xantia cars - the summary
Acquisition of spare parts and identification numbers of the car
Technology of implementation of repair procedures
Tools and equipment of a workplace
Operations procedure in extreme situations
Poddomkrachivaniye and towage
Change of wheels
Start of the engine from an auxiliary source
Identification of leaks
Preparation of the car for checkup
Diagnostics of malfunctions of knots and systems of the car
Features of traffic regulations of the countries of Europe
+ Operation manual
+ Routine maintenance
+ Repair of the engine
+ Cooling systems, heating
+ Power supply system and release
+ Engine electric equipment
+ Power shafts
+ Uniform hydraulic system
+ Brake system
+ Running gear and steering
+ Body and finishing of salon
+ Onboard electric equipment
+ Schemes of electric equipment
Tools and equipment of a workplace
Ability to pick up the good tool is one of fundamental requirements for each motorist planning to try the hand in performing procedures of maintenance or car repairs. At first sight, the expenses connected with acquisition of the required set of tools can seem incommensurably big, however at their comparison with the expenses interfaced to performing procedures of routine maintenance and the elementary car repairs at car repair shop will be quite reasonable.
To help the average amateur mechanic with the choice of the tool necessary at holding various procedures for care of the car described in this manual the lists of three tool kits which are conditionally entitled as are given below: "Tool kit for routine maintenance and minimum repair"; "Tool kit for the general and capital repairs" and "The special tool". The owners of cars who do not have practical experience of carrying out mechanical works have to begin with performing procedures, the tools limited to application from the first list, improving at the same time the skills and gradually expanding the range of the used tool. With acquisition of experience it is possible to pass to performance of more complex challenges, as required supplementing the held tool kit. After a while the received skills will allow to start performance of more complex works demanding use of the tool from the second list (for the general and capital repairs of the car). When the reached qualification allows to save considerable means on independent performance of difficult repair procedures, it is possible to think of acquisition of the special tool.
Tool kit on routine maintenance and the minimum car repairs
The list given below includes a minimum necessary for performing procedures of routine maintenance and insignificant car repairs of tools. Authors of the present manual insist on acquisition of a set of the combined wrenches (from ordinary Rozhkova a head on one end and with cap on another). Despite the big cost of such set in comparison with the cost of set of ordinary Rozhkov of keys, expense will be justified since these keys have advantages of both types.
• A set of the combined keys 8 x 19 mm
Tool kit for the general and capital repairs of the car
This tool is necessary when carrying out any operations on repair of the engine of the car and is offered in addition to the first list. This list includes a complete set of replaceable face heads. At the considerable cost, having appeared at the right time near at hand, a set of replaceable heads can bring invaluable benefit, thanks to the universality and convenience in the address — in particular in combination with the drives which are included in the package of various type. Authors of the present manual recommend to use drives with a section of 1/2 inches (but not 3/8 inches) since they, though are more expensive, can be used practically with any type of dynamometer keys (ideally, the good mechanic has to have both types of drives at the order). Cheaper alternative to a set of replaceable face heads is a set of tubular keys.
In the course of performance of some mechanical works there can be a need for additional use of special tools from the third list.
• The reversive ratchet drive (for use with replaceable face heads)
The tools which are adequately expensive, not required regularly, or demanding when using implementation of instructions of manufacturers are included in this list. If the field of activity of the reader does not include frequent performance of difficult mechanical operations, acquisition of such tool will be bad investment of capital — reasonably to get it by sharing the cost with friends or to hire in workshops of car service.
Only those tools which can be found in retail trade or which are issued for distribution on service centers are entered in the list. Sometimes in the text of the Management the reader will meet references with the instruction to need of use of such special tools. Usually authors try to offer in parallel the alternative method allowing to avoid obligatory use of the remote tool. In case it is impossible to avoid use of the special tool, and its acquisition in use is problematic, it is better to entrust performance of the corresponding works to specialists of car service.
• The tool for grinding in of valves
• The tool for removal/installation of piston rings
• A vertical drill for processing of edges of cylinders
• Extractor of spherical hinges
• A stroboscope (with the inductive sensor)
• The manual combined pump (vacuum/delivery)
Acquisition of the tool
The amateur mechanic, the beginner in respect of acquisition of the necessary tool for performing procedures of routine maintenance and car repairs can be offered several practical advice. By preparation for holding procedures of routine maintenance or the minimum car repairs it is reasonable to buy the tool separately. On the other hand, in case of planning of broad works, it is simpler and more reliable to buy a set of the modern tool in shop of retail network. Acquisition of a set usually costs a little cheaper individual purchases and is often supplemented with the enclosed toolbox. Further, for choice expansion, separate tools, additional sets and a toolbox of the bigger size can be bought in addition. Gradual expansion of a set of tools will allow to stretch expenses and to be defined in the choice of really necessary tools.
Specialized tool shops are the only source of acquisition of some special tools. Irrespective of a source, try to avoid cheap purchases, in particular at the choice of screw-drivers and replaceable face heads as the term of their service for certain will be short. The expenses connected with replacement and restoration of the cheap tool as a result will be incomparably more considerable, than costs of single acquisition of qualitative goods.
Care of the tool and its storage
The good tool is valuable investment of capital therefore it is reasonable to take care of keeping it clean and constant availability for service. After use of the tool before putting it to the place of storage, always carefully wipe its surface with pure dry rags, deleting from it traces of dirt, lubricant and the remains of metal particles. Never leave the tool scattered in a workplace. After completion of works attentively check space under a cowl and under the car for existence of the forgotten tool.
For storage of such tool as screw-drivers, flat-nose pliers, hammers, etc., the tool comb fixed in the convenient place on a garage wall is ideal. Sets of wrenches and replaceable face heads should be stored in metal boxes. The measuring tool has to be stored in inaccessible to impact of corrosion, dry and pure places.
Always it is necessary to pay attention to a condition of working surfaces of the tool. A shock part quickly of the hammer in the course of work is subject to a rasklepyvaniye, screw-drivers lose sharpening of the stings over time. You do not stint to find a little time and attention to that by means of an emery paper or a file to remove rasklepa and to put the cutting edges of tools in order. It is irreversible the worn-out or damaged tool replace.
At careful leaving the tool will serve to you belief and the truth during very long term.
Speaking about the tool, it is necessary to remember the workplace equipment. If carrying out more serious work, than simple maintenance is necessary, it is necessary to take care of preparation of the suitable working platform.
It is necessary to recognize that many motorists are forced to make removal of the engine and other similar works not in the conditions of a garage or a workshop. Anyway the important requirement is existence of a roof or awning.
Whenever possible, any procedures for dismantling of knots of the car have to be made on a pure flat workbench, or a strong table of convenient height. The workbench has to be surely equipped with a vice. Existence of a vice with disclosure to 100 mm and with soft overlays for sponges is sufficient.
As it was already mentioned above, on the working platform the pure dry place for storage of the tool, lubricant and cleaning liquids, hard putties, paints and varnishes, etc. has to be equipped.
It is necessary to notice that absolutely necessary tool is the electric drill, therefore, the working platform has to be equipped with the power supply for its connection. Existence of a drill with the boss to 9.5 mm and a set of qualitative drills considerably will facilitate holding many procedures.
At last, in a workplace always there has to be a sufficient stock of old newspapers and pure, not ворсящейся rags, intended for cleaning of the working platform, the tool and details of the car.
Working off should be handed over in the centers for utilization in hermetically closed container.
Never you perform any works on the barefaced painted surface of body panels of the car, use protective overlays for wings, or, at the worst, cover the polished surfaces with old blankets.
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